Thanks, Lifter. I figured out what I was doing wrong. I was putting the actual max10.exe file in the startup folder instead of pointing to it with a shortcut. Apparently, certain files must be in the same folder as the max10.exe file when it executes or it doesn't work. All works fine now. Mental note to me: always put shortcuts in startup folder, not execution files.
Of course, my mental notes aren't often so good. I made a mental note to cover those exposed wires with electrical tape about five minutes before those same wires fried my motherboard. Oh well.