While researching my own project, I stumbled across this forum and the discussions about Android and the Nexus 7. I joined up to contribute to the discussions based on my experience installing a Nexus 7 tablet in my Corvette. This seems like a good place to develop ideas like this, as Android and PC based car computers have a lot of common ground. I also believe Android may very well be the future of car computing due to power efficiency, size, cost, and touch optimized apps.
Here is my full build journal:
I built a standard sized double din Android radio out of a RadioShack project box and a Metra double din adapter. It's housing a Nexus 7, USB Hub, CNX-P5V step down power converter, and a USB audio interface. Internal bits were mounted using brackets with I/O coming out the back. Using the RCA out 2x port, I get 6 outs from the EQ that's next in the chain. I use the left channel of the RCA inputs 2x port for the noise canceling mic. Additional ports include 12V constant in, 12V accessory in for a remote, and common chassis ground in. USB extension wires run out the top to the interior right side of my glove box.
Theoretically, this would bolt up in any car. I wanted to develop a solution that would work for anyone. I didn't cut or permanently modify the car in any way, so the stock radio can go back in at any time. I relocated the USB port on the tablet, as it would have collided with mount points in the car otherwise. This is a common problem in most applications. I moved it to the speaker grill, which seems to be a good solution.
I've spent many hours working through implementation issues. I've noticed many others on the forum having the same problems. In an effort to help, I've collected some lessons learned below.
Sound Quality Issues
: The bluetooth and headphone out have inferior sound quality. The 1/8" out has a weak signal and a noisy DAC when driving 6 channels though splitters.
: I used a USB DAC that gives me clean line level audio out. It connects to an inexpensive Clarion EQ line driver that gives me six 7V RCA outs, volume control, panning, and a secondary sound source input for a phone or other uses. You could even use the optical out on the DAC for a high end DSP processor. When using this method, the sound quality is excellent.
: Storage is limited to a flash memory card, unless you use an OTG cable to make the tablet a host. Unfortunately, most kernels will not allow you to charge the tablet while in host mode. While there are a number of great streaming music services available, tethering connections aren't always reliable. Furthermore, data caps and throttling can be an issue with some providers.
: Timur's USB ROM offers USB host mode charging. This means that you can connect a USB hub with attached storage and audio interface. The tablet will stay charged and attached peripherals are externally powered. This solution requires Timur's kernel and a special version of the USB OTG cable with power input.
Using a streaming music service, you can download playlists for offline use using Wi-Fi or side-load your music collection directly onto the drive. When tethered while driving, your playlists will automatically update in the background. However, having no connection or throttling issues won't be a problem since you already have a large collection of music available locally.
Safe Control and UI Issues
: Many people have concerns about safe operation while driving. Basic functions should be accessible without taking your eyes off the road.
: The knobs on the clarion are small, but you can still use them for volume sub control or mute without taking your eyes off the road. You can safely switch tracks using the Google music player and Spotify because both apps support swipe gestures to switch songs. I don't even have to take my hand off the shifter, I can quickly switch tracks by swiping left or right anywhere on the display. I also hooked in a USB media remote that sits in my arm rest. Another option is voice control. Dragon Dictation lets me say phrases like "Play <any song> by <any artist> with <Spotify | Google Music>" and song will promptly start playing. Phrases like "Find Italian restaurants in the area" will bring up Yelp listings that I can subsequently ask it to navigate to.
: I've heard complaints about boot time with Android and the time it takes to start playing music.
: Using Timur's ROM, boot time is not an issue because the tablet is always on. The OS watches for external power events and turns the screen on when the car starts and puts the tablet to sleep when car shuts off. There is minimal power loss in deep sleep because wake timers, communication, and background analytics are all stopped. I only lose 1-2% battery power overnight on average. It's back to 100% in less than 10 minutes during my morning commute. I disabled the lock screen, so it resumes what I was doing when the car starts. Due to virtual links, there is no need to remount the drives, even though they were not powered while the car was off. I can resume playing a song immediately. With this solution, the tablet works like a normal radio.
: I addressed Internet connectivity in the storage section. Now I'd like to address how you can connect auxiliary devices.
: I have a bluetooth OBD II module communicating with Dash command and Torque apps for all the realtime data I could want. These are great apps, complete with data logging capabilities, shift lights etc. I can also see how many G's I'm pulling on the freeway off ramps :)
Aux in: I ran two USB extension cables and a set of RCAs with a removable 1/8" adapter to the glove box for the option of hooking up any auxiliary device. The Clarion is inexpensive, but it offers the basic features you'd want from a radio, including aux in. It has an adjustable gain on the secondary input to match the levels to the primary source so, there is no sudden change in volume when switching sources.
Noise canceling mic: The external USB DAC also has inputs that can be used for connecting a mic. I ran an extension wire up inside of the A-pillar to the right side of the visor.
I saw someone ask about apps that work well in a car. There are countless inexpensive and free apps that work well. The sky is the limit. This is a big part of why I went with Android. Navigation, OBDII, voice control, streaming music, car widgets, all with easily readable touch optimized input. I can even LISTEN to the news with the NBC app playing top stories on the way to work. Passengers can watch the news, Netflix, Hulu, Plex, or locally stored movies.
I've yet to set this up but it's possible and on my to-do list. Tablet Talk lets you dial and send / receive texts from your tablet. It's essentially just a remote that controls the phone with no sound. To do this, you need to patch the phones output to the secondary aux input and switch sources. You'd also need a mount for your phone that places it close enough for the microphone to be in range. Otherwise, you would need a second external mic. Alternatively, you could use Talkatone with a Google Voice phone number. You can have your regular phone number forward to Google Voice after a certain number of rings. To receive the call, don't answer your phone and it will go directly to the car. If you don't answer the call in the car, it goes to Google voicemail transcription. I'll probably go with the second method.
Charging / Power
: There are number of challenging issues related to charging and power. Driving all this kit requires a lot of current. Most people go through a few cheap solutions that disappoint before finding one that's up to the task. If you don't have a sufficient power supply, your tablet won't stay fully charged.
: Converting 12V to 5V with a supply that can provide sufficient current.
: Most people try to disassemble or splice into a car cigarette lighter adapter, which just doesn't cut it. Even if the manufacturer claims it's rated for 3A, these usually have two USB ports with shared power, so you're not getting 3A to one port.
You need a step down converter. The simplest way to reduce the voltage of a DC supply is to use a linear regulator. These are inexpensive, but they dissipate excess power as heat. Adequate cooling will be required with this solution via a heat sink. For a linear regulator I'd recommend using the Carnetix CNX-P5V as a stand alone POL regulator. I'm using this one myself with a CPU heat sink and have no charging or temperature issues while driving. It's only $26.
Buck converters are more efficient, but more expensive. The DCDC-USB is a great converter that can supply up to 10A, but it costs $60 and requires some programming.
: Getting the OS to leverage the available power. I've read about people getting inconsistent results and they weren't sure why.
: After reviewing the data sheets for the charging circuit and the low level code, I understand the problem. The charging circuit will check the impedance of the supply connection and limit charge rates accordingly. For this reason, it's best to use wires that are as thick and short as possible. You also want a good, solid, chassis ground connection. Ideally, you can avoid ground loops by making this a common point where your EQ is also grounded.
Secondly, the OS distinguishes between USB and AC charging modes. Modern computers and hubs only provide between 100-500mA per port as per spec, with Macs being the exception. By contrast, the charging adapters included with your device can provide ~2A. Timur's USB ROM enables fast AC charging while in host mode. However, you have to ensure that there is an adequate power supply. You can't power your USB OTG cable with a 500mA port.
When calculating your power budget, you need to consider the power that will be used by the tablet, the USB DAC, and your drives. You'll want to allow 2A for the tablet for fast charging. An efficient USB DAC, like the UCA 202, will need about 100mA. The current rating on the hard drive you use will need to be added to that. If it were 1A, the total current would be 3.1A.
When connecting all this together, your tablet is on the host side of the hub. Power will be supplied with a USB OTG cable like the one pictured below.
With this cable and USB ROM, power goes both directions as shown in the diagram below.
The 3.1A, or more depending on your particular hardware, will need to be connected to the male USB connector shown at the bottom of the diagram. The USB hub is attached on the right. If you use an active hub, you'll need to connect an additional supply. Regardless of which type you use, you'll need to look at the manufacturer's specifications to learn the per port current limit. If your hub supplies 500mA per port but your drive needs 1A, you can use a USB Y cable to bridge the power from 2 ports. Be cautious about using hubs with more than 4 ports because each port doesn't always get the same amount of power.
: Switching the supply on and off with the car.
: Use a 12V relay before your step down converter or use a converter with a remote output. Don't try to use the accessory line from your radio harness to power the converter, because it won't provide enough current. This should only be used as a remote signal. Any time power is removed from the input on the OTG cable, USB ROM will go to sleep.
: Temperatures in the car can get very hot due to the greenhouse effect. This presents some safety concerns with the lithium ion battery. Battery charging circuits have built in safety protection. If the interior of the car gets too hot while parked, charging will be disabled. There is a periodic wake up timer that will check the temperature. Charging won't be allowed to resume until the temperatures have decreased to an acceptable range, typically less than 45C. Some have noted that between 37-45C, charging may occur, but it is very slow.
: This is the last problem I'm tackling. I hope to have a solution in the coming weeks where the tablet battery isn't necessary. Ideally, I'd like to use an SLA battery or the car battery with a buck regulator to deliver 3.7V for standby. It's not a trivial problem, as modern batteries are smart, so the OS needs re-worked to believe the battery is still there. I'm currently identifying all the software procedures that will need to be re-written for safe operation. Stay tuned for updates.
Most of this wouldn't be possible without Timur's USB ROM. It's the only reason I picked up a Nexus 7. I would have preferred to purchased a tablet with the Snapdragon processor I help design, or maybe even an iPad mini. However, Timur's ROM had too much value-add for a fixed car install to ignore. I'm stuck using a tablet powered by our competitor, Nvidia Tegra, for now. The next Nexus 7 is publicly rumored to have a Snapdragon chip, so this could change.
Here's a link to Timur's USB ROM:
It's associated development / discussion thread:
All of the tablet install related bits including the EQ line driver came out to around $500 bucks, about the same as a decent aftermarket radio. I did another $500 worth of audio upgrades at the same time since I had the car apart anyways.
So that's it for now, let me know if you have more questions or suggestions.