1. its probably easy to use one of those solderless boards
3. "The telephone ring generator shown below generates the needed high voltage from a simple switching mode power supply"
4. if you mean the thing next to 10mH thats an inductor
5. see #2
6. pretty sure they are pin numbers the ones outside are part numbers
7. thats a variable resistor
9. possibly, but its not like those parts are gonna be super expensive so if u screw up it dosent really matter