I had a similar problem with my Linksys USB adapter hooked up to my carpc. The weird thing was that I didn't have a problem when the router was not encrypted but as soon as I encrypted it I got the problem. It is very difficult to advise you on what the exact problem is with your system without knowing oodles of info, plus I'm no network expert either.
However, I managed to resolve my problem by uninstalling the software for the Linksys adapter and making sure that the adapter/driver was removed in Device Manager. Rebooting, plugging in the adapter and installing the Linksys driver and then relying on Windows Zero Wireless to sort out the connection fixed the problem. At least then I could get an internet connection but that didn't solve another network problem I had with my desktop, but that's another story that might not be relevant. Not sure if this will help you but you never know. Good luck.